Growth hormone promotes human growth and regulate the body's material metabolism. Growth hormone through the inhibition of muscle and adipose tissue grapes dwarfism sugar, while promoting the role of gluconeogenesis in the liver and glycogen decomposition, so that the blood sugar. Growth hormone can promote fat decomposition, so that the elevated plasma free fatty acids. Hunger, reduced insulin secretion, increased growth hormone secretion, so blood glucose by reducing fat utilization increased plasma glucose and free fatty acid content increased.As follows:① promote growth: the promotion of bone, cartilage, muscle and other tissue cell proliferation and protein synthesis, thus speeding up the growth and development of bones and muscles.② Adjust metabolism: the promotion of protein metabolism, especially the liver outside the organization of protein synthesis; promoting amino acids enter the cell, enhance of DNA, RNA synthesis, to reduce urinary nitrogen, was nitrogen are balanced; enhanced lipolysis and antibody formation; inhibition of peripheral tissue uptake and utilization of glucose, reducing the consumption of glucose, elevated blood sugar levels.
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TNF molecules in a single amino acid replacement may be their biological activity toproduce different effects. When the mutagenesis human TNF-a following region ofamino acids (32,36,86,84,29,146,91), human TNF-a cytotoxic activity was significantly decreased, without changing its physical and chemical characteristics.Showed that the amino acids of these sites may be involved in human TNF-areceptor binding and start the human TNF-a mediated cytotoxic activity, is a veryimportant part of the people of TN Fa molecular structure.
the importance of the N-terminal of TNF molecules and the C-terminal
The absence of human TNF-a N-terminal amino acid test showed that the removal of the N-terminal seven amino acids may enhance its anti-tumor cytotoxic activity.Removal of eight amino acids, anti-tumor cytotoxic activity down to the samewild-type T NF. When the removal of more than 10 amino acids from the N-terminal,anti-tumor cytotoxic activity decreased significantly. The people of TN Fp in theremoval of the N-terminal 27 amino acids did not lose their cytotoxic activity.Prompted human TNF-a N-terminal nine amino acids and human TNF-p-N-terminal27 amino acids, though not required for its function, but in some ways can regulatethe biological activity of modified human TN Fa and TNF-p. In contrast, human TNF-a C-side of their biological activity is critical, may be part of the receptor binding site, when the removal of three amino acids of the C-terminal to its cytotoxic activity decreased significantly. The people of TNF-p in the removal of the C-terminal 10 amino acids can lead to the loss of its biological activity.
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